The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze?

The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze?

Lindow Common Lindow Moss is a peat bog in Lindow, an area of Wilmslow, Cheshire, which has been used as common land since the medieval period. It formed after the last ice age , one of many such peat bogs in north-east Cheshire and the Mersey basin that formed in hollows caused by melting ice. It is a dangerous place; an 18th-century writer recorded people drowning there. For centuries the peat from the bog was used as fuel, and it continued to be extracted until the s, by which time the process had been mechanised. Lowland raised mires occur mainly in northern England and extend south to the Midlands. Lindow Woman On 13 May , two peat workers at Lindow Moss, Andy Mould and Stephen Dooley, noticed an unusual object—about the size of a football—on the elevator taking peat to the shredding machine.

Holocene Epoch

Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Albedo — The amount of solar radiation that is reflected back off a surface. Alum — A chemical compound that can be processed from clays.

What does DRPD mean in Unclassified? This page is about the meanings of the acronym/abbreviation/shorthand DRPD in the Miscellaneous field in general and in the Unclassified terminology in particular.

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms?

Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life.

Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc. Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals. Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of oceans, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, don’t appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma.

If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained? Certainly this seems like a difficult and rather mysterious problem for those, like myself, who might think to question the long age notion of the fossil record.

At least a partial explanation might be found in the fairly recently discovered fact that at least some nested hierarchical patterns to the distribution of different populations both living and within the fossil record seem to be strongly related to ecological and population-size factors. This pattern arises when species that appear on few islands occur only on the islands with the most species, while only the most widespread species are found on the islands with few species Wright et al.

Lindow Man

Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business.

I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace.

Chronologies for Recent Peat Deposits Table 1 Sample characteristics and results of 14 C analyses. Key to sample composition: A = Sphagnum leaves and stems, B = .

The Toppila Power Station , a peat-fired facility in Oulu , Finland The climate, geography, and environment of Finland favours bog and peat bog formation. Thus, peat is available in considerable quantities. This abundant resource often mixed with wood at an average of 2. Peat provides around 6. Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel.

Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland. Furthermore, it is a common practice to forest used peat bogs instead of giving them a chance to renew. This leads to lower levels of CO2 storage than the original peat bog. According to one study, increasing the average amount of wood in the fuel mixture from the current 2. That said, little effort is being made to achieve this.

The International Mire Conservation Group IMCG in urged the local and national governments of Finland to protect and conserve the remaining pristine peatland ecosystems. This includes the cessation of drainage and peat extraction in intact mire sites and the abandoning of current and planned groundwater extraction that may affect these sites. A proposal for a Finnish peatland management strategy was presented to the government in , after a lengthy consultation phase.

The ‘turf’ in the foreground is machine-produced for domestic use.

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Opt out or contact us anytime Plumes of Methane Katey Walter Anthony had been told to hunt for methane, and she could not find it. As a young researcher at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, she wanted to figure out how much of that gas was escaping from lakes in areas of permafrost thaw. She was doing field work in Siberia in , scattering bubble traps around various lakes in the summer, but she got almost nothing.

Then, that October, the lakes froze over. Plumes of methane that had been hard to spot on a choppy lake surface in summer suddenly became more visible.

Turetsky et al., DATING RECENT PEAT composition in peatlands may be retarded by high acidity, low oxygen supply at depth, low nutrient availability, and/or poor substrate quality for microbial.

The Sahara desert is expanding; it can only be a few thousand years old. The present Sahara Desert really is only a few thousand years old. About 7 or 8 thousand years ago the area underwent a pronounced wet phase and portions of it were habitable parkland where cattle could be grazed The Times Atlas of World History, More than 10, years ago, during the last glaciation, lakes and streams were present in the Sahara, and elephants, giraffes, and other animals roamed the grasslands and forests which covered much of the region.

Not long ago radar was used to discover a fossil river which once flowed across the Sahara; the river bed is now buried beneath the desert sands. By the way, what does any of this have to do with the age of the earth? Given the rate of salt influx to the oceans, they should be much saltier than they are if the earth were billions of years old.

Hovind is assuming that salt cannot be removed from the oceans. The more sophisticated creationists, such as Melvin Cook, know better than to make that assumption. Here’s what Cook had to say: The validity of the application of total salt in the ocean in the determination of age turned out to have a very simple answer in the fact shown by Goldschmidt that it is in steady state and therefore useless as a means of determining the age of the oceans.

6,000-year-old decorative wood carving unearthed on Welsh mountainside

The process that turns bedrock into sediment or soil is called weathering. Weathering is achieved by both mechanical and chemical means. Gravity and associated processes of mass wasting see chapter 10 move the mechanical sediment to locations where it can be lithified into detrital sedimentary rock. Below are ways that bedrock is weathered mechanically. Pressure Expansion The outer layer of this granite is fractured and eroding away, known as exfoliation Think about the rock cycle studied in chapter 1.

Bedrock that is buried to some depth within the Earth is under high pressure and temperature.

This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14 C bomb peak, Pb, Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well.

However, there is uncertainty in the accuracy and consistency of the methodologies used for dating recent peats. This study compares results from Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles SCPs and natural and anthropogenic fallout radionuclides Pb, Cs and Am used to date three replicate cores from three contrasting sites. Data are used to test the consistency of dating techniques within and between sites, and to assess the impact of local conditions on geochronological results.

There is broad consistency in results, but there is also a significant disagreement between dates in a number of cores, both within and between sites. A relatively dry site that had been affected by past burning and erosion showed the greatest consistency between methods and replicate cores. Wetter, less degraded sites showed least consistency. Using patterns of dis agreement between dating techniques we assess the potential causes of dating inaccuracy.

The data support previous suggestions that Pb is mobile in wetter conditions, and suggests that Am can be considered an increasingly valuable radionuclide. Finally, our data suggest the current estimates for SCP-based ages in the region maybe incorrect and require further regional calibration. Using several techniques on replicate cores from three sites in the same area has provided a more robust evaluation of the likely reliability of individual techniques and the processes that may adversely affect them.

We conclude that until advances are made in understanding the processes behind the variable quality of SCP and fallout radionuclide dating, using two or more dating techniques will greatly improve understanding of the validity of a peatland chronology, especially in wetter locations. Previous article in issue.

The Best CMS

How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case. Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age.

Highlights Multiple peat cores dated using SCPs and FRN in variable conditions to test accuracy. SCPs may need more local calibration. Dating more consistent in drier peat, supports suggestions Pb is mobile in wet conditions. Multiple techniques are required for robust chronology in recent peat deposits.

He wore a pointed skin cap of sheepskin and wool , fastened under his chin by a hide thong, and a smooth hide belt around his waist. Additionally, a noose made of plaited animal hide was drawn tight around his neck and trailed down his back. His hair was cropped so short as to be almost entirely hidden by his cap. The acid in the peat, needed for the preservation of a human body, is caused by a bryophyte named Sphagnum.

Sphagnum fights against degradation due to resistant phenolic compounds contained in their cell walls. Examinations and X-rays showed that the man’s head was undamaged, and his heart, lungs and liver were well preserved. The Silkeborg Museum estimated his age as approximately 40 years and height at 1. It is likely that the body had shrunk in the bog. On the initial autopsy report in , doctors concluded that Tollund Man died by hanging rather than strangulation. There was no mark, however, at the back of the neck where the knot of the noose would have been located.

After a re-examination in , forensic scientists found further evidence to support these initial findings. Approximately 40 kinds of seeds were identified, but the porridge was primarily composed of four types: Porridges were common for people of this time. In , the Danish police made a fingerprint analysis, making Tollund Man’s thumbprint one of the oldest prints on record.

5 Weathering, Erosion, and Sedimentary Rocks

February 7, ; Revised: November 17, ; Revised: January 12, ; Revised: January 12, ; Accepted:

Pb dating using the CRS model represents an important means of establishing recent chronologies for sediment and peat deposits, but care must be taken in its use to take into account limitations imposed by sampling and analysis.

First, some preliminary remarks are given: It is the local or global mean height of sea level. How is MSL defined: This definition averages out tidal highs and lows caused by the changing effects of the gravitational forces from the moon and sun”. Mean Sea Level cannot be measured directly. It must be derived from other measurements such as hourly tide gauge measurements or proxy data sea level marks. The height of Mean Sea Level is given relative to a certain, arbitrary chosen, reference or datum level, e.

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